Monday, October 26, 2015

Digital India Needs Correction

Stalled in mid stride: Digital India can transform the country, but not the way it is being implemented now

Among the flurry of initiatives announced in the wake of the new government taking over in May 2014, the Digital India initiative stood out – for its potential to transform governance, citizenship and entrepreneurship in our country. It’s an exciting vision because of its potential to leapfrog a nation and people into the technology age – creating unprecedented competitive advantages for India. It’s also exciting because of the promise to transform utterly decrepit institutions of government and democracy – fulfilling the “minimum government, maximum governance” goal of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
But a year and half on, the gap between vision and execution on the ground is wide and growing. Serious questions are popping up on the capacity of the ministry and regulator to both understand and implement Digital India.
From the get go, it was obvious that Digital India and connecting Indians to the internet – transformational as it was going to be – needed serious work. It has taken about $100 billion of investment over the last 21 years to get 900 million Indians behind a mobile phone. In recent years about 200 million Indians have also connected to the internet. An estimated $80 billion is required to get 600 million Indians connected to the internet. Early on in this government’s term, i had written to government and in articles about the key building block issues that need to be addressed.
At the heart of it is credible independent regulation. India’s Trai is an agency that has suffered from serious credibility problems both in terms of quality of its regulation and perceived capture by some telcos. Its handling of issues like call drops and net neutrality has been simply terrible, raising more questions than it answered.
Trai’s capacity needs to be strengthened to regulate a sector where disruptive technologies are the norm and where consumers expect unfettered access to these new innovations, without being limited by legacy licensing or business model issues.
Focus on rights of a billion Indians destined to become digital Indians is important because consumer rights in the technology and telecom space have been given short shrift over the last decade. An infamous example is poor network quality and call drops – an issue only being handled belatedly after public outcry.
On call drops, government has demonstrated the will to break the vicelike hold of a few telcos that have in recent years controlled policy making unchallenged. That this must be balanced with the need to attract $80 billion in capital into the sector is what makes Trai’s and government’s job a sophisticated and nuanced one.
There are other building blocks that are critical to creating the policy ecosystem for Digital India – net neutrality, privacy, data protection, encryption, access and infrastructure investments. Net neutrality is an issue that arrived at the table of policy makers almost 12 months ago and remains without policy clarity to date. A report by an expert committee of government showed how far away government is from where it should be. Public outcry caused an abrupt disavowal of the report.
Net neutrality is a very simple concept – it is about creating an internet that is open, accessible and free of any gatekeepers. It is an element of Digital India that should be simple to define, legislate and regulate. It’s critical in many ways to growth of Digital India, to investments, to supporting digital entrepreneurship and creating a smooth roadmap to future innovations around the Internet of Things and Industrial Internet. Net neutrality is a defining issue for the growth of internet in our country. Government’s much delayed policy making in this area is a big deal, hurting the future of Digital India.
Privacy is yet another issue where government is behind the curve. One of the implications of Digital India is that millions of Indians will have their data and personal information in various government and private databases scattered around the country and overseas. This raises serious issues relating to privacy rights of the consumer. But government’s position in the Aadhaar case is that privacy isn’t a necessary right. I am also a petitioner in this case, now being heard in the Supreme Court.
Absence of privacy legislation is also causing government missteps like the bizarre encryption policy it issued recently, which had to be taken back amidst public furore. The debate on privacy is gaining strength and momentum globally as well. As more and more Indians get online, the clamour for protection of their data and privacy will only grow. It would be unwise to ignore this.
Finally and most importantly Digital India requires significant investments from the private sector. While there is significant global interest amongst investors in Digital India, government responses in recent times to net neutrality, the porn ban saga and encryption policy highlight the large gap between the vision of Digital India and its execution.
To make real the Digital India vision and of taking government and services to a billion Indians via the internet, Trai, DoT and DeitY have to be transformed with the specialised capacity required to deal with technology policy making and regulation. Government needs to reverse its current struggling and muddling through trial and error; it must race ahead of the curve through smart policy and leadership.
The writer is a Rajya Sabha MP and technology entrepreneur
DISCLAIMER : Views expressed above are the author's own.

Monday, October 5, 2015

Modi And - Good Governance- And Modi

                            Modi And Good Governance 
                               Good Governance And Modi

       Good intentions bring desired results. New government under PM Modi voted to power for giving good governance. Public posed their faith in Modi and gave him mandate. PM Modi has proved his well intends. Public belief in Modi is still intact. They are hopeful that promises made in elections for ‘Achhe Din’ (AD) will be a reality sooner than later.
        PM Modi believes in minimum government and maximum governance. It shows his inclination, intention and commitment for providing good governance in letter and spirit. His orientation towards and practice for good governance as Gujrat CM is foundation for public to put their  faith in him for providing it at national level. As a result, Indian voters mandated him and gave  chance to repeat his practice at national forum. 
       The first stage of AD is completed now. The required environment for bringing AD is prepared by now. But, PM Modi needs a path correction and change in focus to convert his ideas and plans into ground reality. Otherwise public is in no mood to wait for long as already one and half year has been given to him to show his performance. 
       The start of anything decides its end. The outset of Modi government is upto the mark. He planned well. His team launched many programs, schemes, and projects meticulously. Make in India, Digital India and skill India are some acts to prove the point. 
      JAM( Jan-Dhan, Adhar, Mobile) is an effort to reach the masses with the help of technology. It helps to reach the right person to provide them social benefits meant for them without leakage.  DBT (Direct-Benefit-Transfer) is tried successfully to transfer gas subsidy directly into the account of beneficiaries. Still a lot has to be done. Lack of adequate banking facilities in rural areas are big hurdles.
      PM Modi’s planning part is ok except some exceptions. India being an agrarian country, Agriculture sector and farmers need more attention. Our farmers are backbone for our country. But, by now, they are not given any such thing to make them happy and to make them feel a change due to change in power at Delhi. This is a big lack on governance part.
       Modi has changed the gloomy environment into a positive one. He made India more visible worldwide by well organised frequent foreign tours. He marketed the might and strength of India to attract the countries' attentions towards it. Developed countries are looking at us as future power center on world map. The United Nations is considering seriously our claim for permanent seat in Security Council. All such positive changes are due to hectic and tireless efforts of PM Modi.
       Now there is a question and we need to find its answer. Is public satisfied with acts and outcomes of new government? Its answer is 75% yes while 25% no. But no answer will increase if course of correction in not taken immediately.
      Modi has to shift his focus. Plan-Prepare-Perform is a three step formula to achieve the desired results. His Plan and Prepare part is over now. He must change and fix up his efforts on third part to Perform. The share of Plan and Prepare is 20% each. Rest 60% is for Perform of three-steps result-oriented process.
       Perform is the most difficult part. It is hard and tense part of three stages. This third stage is like appearing in exam in a tight time bound framework. Public has full faith in Modi’s ability and capabilities to perform.
       Government performs through its ministries by producing different public goods and social products. To get desired results, ministries’ progress and performance be evaluated on monthly basis on different outcomes to achieve timely and quality results on ground otherwise it would be on paper.
       If ministries are forced to appear in monthly test, they are bound to perform. A tight and scientific monthly monitoring mechanism -test-will compel the minister and bubus to give desired outcomes otherwise they have to go as consequences.
       Therefore, it is imperative for PM Modi to stare his focus on third step that is how to Perform by rigorous monitoring. If it is done, it will lead him to fulfil the promises  made during elections for bringing AD by converting ideas on paper into a ground reality.
      Pubic waited patiently for one and half year while he was busy in planning, preparing and making conducive envirnoment. Now any delay in performance will make them impatient and their faith will come down sharply. So, PM has to walk the talk via rigorous monthly monitoring system to live up to the expectations of the public as he promised.
       No doubt, performance is not  an easy task. But,  a well planned frequent monitoring of works will fetch desired results. It will force non-performing bubus to act upon as needed. Experiences teach us, it is the monitoring part where we lack grossly. As a result, our plan and preparation are not converted into desired results.
       A system and mechanism must be placed for result oriented monitoring. This is need of hour. The system should have IIM graduates and world class institutions’ pass outs bright managers in key positions with clearly defined roles and responsibilities.             
        Now, Babus  are monitoring babus. Examnees and examiners are same. Such system will survise at the cost of efficiency and effectiveness. But, it will not procudce required social products to fullfil poll promises. Hence, this needs a change. Our professional managers monitor our babus in order to get the desired results on ground.


Sunday, August 9, 2015

Land Bill and Land Acquisition: A Model Making All Happy

The Modi government has abandoned its move to drastically dilute the clauses of the 2013 land acquisition law that has stalled projects across India. Economic analyses suggest that 43% of all stalled projects face land acquisition problems. This may not be the only constraint: such projects are also constrained by lack of profitability and difficulties in getting finance. Nevertheless, land remains a major hurdle.
The Modi government’s failure to push through a new law to hasten acquisitions means that future projects may get delayed by three-five years because of time-consuming procedures mandated by the 2013 law. These include a social impact assessment (SIA), scrutiny by an expert committee, obtaining the consent of 70-80% of affected people, and a detailed relief and rehabilitation programme.
But even as arguments rage in New Delhi on the pros and cons of the 2013 act, Andhra Pradesh chief minister Chandrababu Naidu has found a way round the problem to build a new capital city on 34,000 acres of farmland. His strategy has been to make all farmers stakeholders in the new capital, so that they voluntarily “pool” their land with the city development agency. Once the city is developed in a decade, they will get back almost 30% of their pooled land as ultra-expensive city land. This enables them to see the new city as a road to prosperity, not deprivation (as happened in Singur or POSCO’s mining area in Odisha).

Naidu also offers farmers a monthly payment per acre as high or higher than the going leasing rate for farmland. Farm loans up to Rs 1.5 lakh will be waived. Landless labourers will get a monthly pension of Rs 2,500. Low-cost canteens and skill-development centres have been opened to train farmers in new occupations. The employment guarantee scheme is supposed to provide work every day of the year. All these benefits put together will cost a tiny fraction of the cost of acquisition, so the government also gains hugely.
The new capital is being built in the fertile Krishna-Godavari area where land today costs one to two crore per acre. Naidu has persuaded farmers that, when the city develops, land will be worth Rs 8-9 crore per acre. Prices are far higher in Hyderabad. So, farmers have surrendered their land voluntarily, expecting a windfall when they get back developed land. Till then, they have a reliable cash flow from monthly government payments, plus opportunities for skilling and taking up other work.
This drives home the point that farming is not very attractive. Many farmers want to quit provided they get favourable terms. Pastoral romantics claim that farmers are wedded to agriculture, especially in fertile multi-cropped areas. That romantic view has been punctured spectacularly in the Krishna-Godavari belt, among the most fertile areas in India.
Naidu will give owners of double-cropped land 1,000 sq yards of residential and 200 sq yards of commercial land for every acre of pooled farmland. In addition they will get an annuity (paid in monthly instalments) starting at Rs 30,000 per year and rising by Rs 3,000 annually for 10 years.
Owners of triple-cropped land will get a better deal: 1,000 sq yards of residential land and 450 sq yards of commercial land for every acre pooled. They will also get an annuity starting at Rs 50,000 per year, rising by Rs 5,000 annually for a decade. After 10 years the city will be fully developed, and all farmers will have become city landlords, workers or businessmen.
Around 400 farmers with 700 acres of land have opposed pooling and gone to the courts, claiming they will get a better deal under the 2013 acquisition law. Naidu has offered them free choice between pooling and acquisition, confident that most will ultimately prefer pooling. Against all odds, he has converted a problem into a solution.
He now proposes pooling for a new airport near Vishakhapatnam. Pooling can be used wherever land prices shoot up after development. It may not work for railway lines, that don’t increase local land values much. But it will work for most other projects.
Other states must study Naidu’s example, and adapt pooling for their own use. The key to success is that the scheme is voluntary, and makes farmers stakeholders in development.
This is not just good politics, or a clever way to facilitate economic development. It is also ethical development. When governments deprive people forcibly of property, that is an act of aggrandisement that should be prohibited save in exceptional, unavoidable circumstances. The first priority must be to make all transactions voluntary.
Politicians cannot be expected to put ethics first. But Naidu has proved it possible to combine ethics, good politics and rapid development. Rarely does that happen.

Sunday, July 19, 2015

What Is Governance?

                     Why Better Governance?
 The governments, public officials, managers and political actors love and run after Good Governance(GG).  To achieve it, we first need to understand, what  Governance mean. What is it all about?  The first and foremost aim of a government is to provide Good Governance to its citizens.
GG has no exact or accurate definition. United Nations (UN) defines GG as an ideal proposition which is difficult to achieve in its totality. GG is an instrument of public affairs management. Public actors and political masters try their best to achieve it. Due to lack and slippage in management, outcome is not as per GG concept.
    Now focus on governance? The concept of governance in not new. Its complexity is difficult to capture in a simple definition. There is no consensus on its meaning. Hence, it can't be defined exactly and accurately.  It provides different meanings to different people in different contexts. And its meaning depends on level of the governance, goals achieved and approach being  followed.
    Governance is a very broad concept, and operates at every level, such as household, village, municipality, nation, region or globe. Due to the inherent diversity in national traditions and public cultures, Governance has many definitions in the literature. But it is possible to categorise it into three main types of governance.
    First, political or public governance, whose authority is the State, government or public sector, relates to the process by which a society organizes its affairs and manages itself. The public sector could be defined as “activities that are undertaken with public funds, whether within or outside of core government, and whether those funds represent a direct transfer or are provided in the form of an implicit guarantee”.
    Second, economic governance, whose authority is the private sector, relates to the policies, the processes or organizational mechanisms that are necessary to produce and distribute services and goods.
    Third, social governance, whose authority is the civil society, including citizens and non-for-profit organizations, relates to a system of values and beliefs that are necessary for social behaviours to happen and for public decisions to be taken.   
    Governance should not be reduced to government, as the three aspects of governance are interdependent in a society. Indeed, social governance provides a moral foundation, while economic governance provides a material foundation, and political governance guaranties the order and the cohesion of a society.
    Therefore, governance is not just about how a government and social organizations interact, and how they relate to citizens, but it concerns the State’s ability to serve citizens and other actors, as well as the manner in which public functions are carried out, public resources are managed and public regulatory powers are exercised.  
    Besides, public governance represents more than a means of providing common good, as it can be related to the government capacity to help their citizens’ ability to achieve individual satisfaction and material prosperity. Therefore, governance could be compared to the management, supply, and delivery of political goods to citizens of a nation-state.
    Political goods and social products are various, and they include human security, rule of law, political and civil freedoms, medical and health care, schools and education, communication networks, money and banking system, fiscal and institutional context, support for civil society, or regulating the sharing of the environmental commons. The practice of governance is also ruled by community values, informal traditions, accepted practices, or unwritten codes of conduct.
    The term governance is the most favourite term for (and frequently used by) political actors, social activists, and public managers.  Governance is a gauge for metering and assessing  performance of public actors.  It acts as tool for measuring  quality of the governance in marketing  public services by public managers.
    There are some fundamental concepts and terminologies of governance. These concepts and terminologies are not static and don't apply in a uniform way in all places and cultures.    
    The term governance gained prominent attention towards the end of the twentieth century.  The donor agencies, social scientists, philanthropists and civil society  applied it to a wide range of issues, relationships and institutions in the process of managing public and private affairs.  
    Public administration popularises the word governance.   Many theorists  believe  governance  as organising concepts  that guides public managers  as administrative practices shift  from the bureaucratic  state to what is called the hollow state.
    The  World Bank(WB) and International Monetary Fund(IMF), and Western countries urged developing countries to undertake political, economic and administrative reforms  to practice GG.  
    Governance, in a generic sense, refers for running a government or entity. The  Webster's New International Dictionary  indicates governance is a synonym for government.  This implies the act or process of governing, mainly authoritative direction and control.
    The  British council, however  asserts that " Governance is a  notion more than government.  The working definition used by council is " Governance involves interaction between the formal entity and those civil society.  It refers to a process whereby elements in society wield power, authority, and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life and social upliftment."
    Frederickson and Smith asserts that with more emphasis on governance, " the administrative state is now less bureaucratic,  less hierarchical and less reliant on central authority to mandate actions. Accountability for conducting  the public's business is increasingly about performance rather than following a specific policy goal within the ambit of the law."
World Governance Indicators  project conceptualizes that "Governance consists of the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them."
    The United Nations Development Progamme (UNDP), in its 1997 policy paper, defined governance as " the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country' affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their difference."
    Institute on Governance (IoG)defines that "Governance determines who has power, who makes decisions, how other players make their voice heard and how account is rendered."  It further states that  mostly definitions rest on three main dimensions: authority, decision-making and accountably.     
    IOG also offers a simple definition as" the art of steering societies and organisations." Governance is about  the more strategic aspects of steering, making the larger decisions about both direction and roles. Governance is a highly contextual concept.  While working  in the field of governance, one operates in an area where one size does not fit all.
    In 1993, the WB defined governance as the method through which power is exercised in the management of a country' political, economic, and social resources for development.
    The evaluation of  governance is important for a number of reasons. First, donors and reformers take it into consideration when assessing the impact of policies and determining future development projects. Second, governance evaluations determine the investment climate. It is well established that aid flows have greater impacts on development in countries with better governance
    Governance is a qualitative aspect. Measuring and assessing it exactly is not easy.  Its measurement is inherently controversial and political exercise. In many efforts, research and international development community tried  to assess the quality of governance of countries all around the world over the last decades.
      In one notable effort among many, WB and WB Institute has created an internationally comparable measure of governance. They started a Worldwide Governance Indicators project.  The project evaluate and assess 200 countries  for six dimensions of governance. These are: voice and accountability, political stability and lack of violence,  government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, control of corruption.
    A new World Governance Index(WGI) project started. It reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over a period of 1996-2013 for six dimensions as in WB.  The WGI are not used to allocate resources by WB groups.
    Governance  is a term closely associates with  public.  It affects and impacts general masses everyday directly or indirectly. Public are consumer of political goods and social products. These are produced and marketed in a factory called government by political masters and public actors through different governance processes and steps.
    The different types of programmes, projects, ideas etc. implemented by the governments may broadly be categorized as social products. These products are developed for the welfare and overall development of the society and masses.
    Our three-tier government-system (national, provincial, and local) creates departments/ ministries/ sections for developing such social products. The government markets social products for no profit with a primary ambition of achieving better governance. Therefore, governance could be compared to the management, supply, and delivery of political goods and social products to citizens of a nation-state.
Better governance brings happiness. Simple  governance  makes life charmless. And bad governance makes citizens'  life miserable. Desired better governance improves the image of the nation and political masters worldwide. It  helps in enhancing the bargaining power of the country. 
This in turn assists in economic growth and  accelerates  the overall prosperity and development of the country and its citizen.  
Heera Lal (Views are personal and based on different references)

Thursday, July 2, 2015

PhD Synopsis: Social and Political marketing by ICT and Marketing concepts

Role of ICT and Marketing Concepts in Achieving Good Governance in Uttar Pradesh

Synopsis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Management from
Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Lucknow, India

Submitted By
 Heera Lal
{Roll No. 1150071}

Under the Supervision of
Prof Jabir Ali (IIM Lucknow)
Prof. D S Yadav(Dr.BR Ambedkar Engg College, Banda) 

Table of Contents

1.  Aims and Objectives of the Research (Purpose of the Study): 

The first and foremost aim of a government is to provide Good Governance (GG).GG has no exact or accurate definition. United Nations (UN) defines GG as an ideal proposition which is difficult to achieve in its totality. In realistic world, UN has prescribed eight major characteristics for GG. These are: Consensus oriented, Participatory, Follows the rule of law, Effective &Efficient, Accountable, Transparent, Responsive, and Equitable &Inclusive.
GG is an instrument of public affairs management. Public and political actors try their best to achieve it. Due to lack and slippage in management, outcome is not as per GG concept. Therefore, we need to find it out and reduce it by different tools and techniques of marketing and IT.
The very purpose of study is to know the use of ICT (Information and communication Technology) enabled services, with a focus on social media & mobile technology and marketing management concepts in achieving GG via social marketing. Social and political sectors are broadening its boundaries by using concepts and tools of Information Technology (IT or ICT) and marketing.
The present study will enable to find out how to maximize the use of ICT and marketing in deliveringGG or in other words “Government to Citizen (G2C)” services in a better way thus enabling every citizen to avail the goods of a welfare state.
In addition to above, this study, if used analytically, has enough potential to create opportunities for the government to communicate itself better. Qualitative aspects of GG which cannot be measured otherwise may be brought forward for people to judge the government, aided with the tools prescribed in this paper. It also serves the purpose of a focused and targeted branding of government on the basis of quality governance delivered.

2.  Background of the Subject: 

India has come a long way to maturity as an independent nation and had its share of ups and downs. The country has changed drastically in terms of economic prosperity and maintaining the essence of a welfare democratic state.
In the age of expanding satellite services, fast growing awareness and melting boundaries make it’s difficult for public managers, social workers and political actors to connect, engage and communicate with the public and voters to the level of their satisfaction.
To satisfy masses and voters, social and political sectors have broadened its boundaries by using concepts and tools of Information Technology (IT or ICT) and marketing. IT has affected and impacted all walks of life in the society. It has brought India on world map by exporting its services worldwide- particularly USA. Likewise innovative and investigative marketing concepts have also galvanized consumer sector of India. Keeping in view the landscape, number, and fast desired speed, social and political sector must work in tandem with IT and marketing for achieving the desired results. These two factors have contributed to the inclusive growth of the country immensely and have brought the results. However, Indians lag behind in the fusion of the above two in order to be a developed welfare state with both factors complimenting each other.
In exclusive growth, social, public and political actors have a major role to play.  Fast changing mind set of pubic where none is willing to wait has compelled these sectors to replace their traditional ways and means with modern concepts, tools and technologies.
Indian Yoga Guru Baba Ram Dev is one of the best current practicing social marketer while President Barrack Obama and PM Modi have set precedent in political marketing as well as in good governance worldwide.
Recent result trends of elections and mass movement against corruption, black money and bad governance are clear indications that public wish to get rid of these things sooner than later.  To fulfill these desires of the masses, our political, social and public players need to emulate the modern concept of social and political marketing in establishing India as a welfare and developed country the earliest possible. Without the use of these, we can’t get the name of India in the list of developed countries with the desired result of inclusive growth.
The idea proposed is to research the impact and effect of IT and marketing that can be employed as a tool and technique to foster e governance through social marketing efforts in India. It also aims at developing a strong medium which can be practiced to evolve political marketing initiative as well.

3.  Literature Review: 

Different services such as the various records of land holding can be assessed online like the Bhulekh, various certificates required by the citizen like caste, domicile, birth, death, age among others. The citizens can register online and obtain them easily. Along with these driving license, ration card can be acquired by online registration. The government is reaching out to the citizens by applying IT and marketing concepts and the citizens are availing these services.
Information Technology is recognized as a strategic tool that can enhance efficiencies in government very significantly (Margretts, 1999). E-governance offers integrated government services through a single window concept by re-engineering of government processes. E-government has been seen as the intensive use of information technologies for the provision of public services, the improvement of managerial effectiveness and promotion of democratic values and mechanisms (Gil-Garcia and Pardo, 2005).
Government at all three tiers - the centre, state and local bodies like Municipalities and Panchayati Raj Institution, are now leveraging IT for good governance (Abramson, 2003). E-governance brings governments and citizens closer together by eliminating/reducing various levels involved in providing services and information and improving the delivery and quality, while bringing transparency (Bedi& Srivastava, 2002; Evans, 2003).
In India, e-governance still seems to be in growth stage. Various experiments are being conducted by governments to implement e-government initiatives. Efforts are made to study the various issues involved in e-readiness, e-adoption and e-deliverance with the help of various case studies (Barry Fulton, 2003). Some states have been very successful in their efforts, while others are still lagging behind. The state of Uttar Pradesh is one such state which still has a long way to go as far as e-governance is concerned.

4.  Current scenario: 

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country accounting for 16.4 per cent of the country’s population. It is also the fourth largest state in geographical area covering 9.0 per cent of the country’s geographical area. The performance of the state on various social development indicators like medical facilities, teacher-pupil ratio in primary schools, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, literacy, per capita income, electrification of villages, per capita power consumption etc. have not been very encouraging. Uttar Pradesh is often seen as a case study of development in a region of India that currently lag behind other parts of the country in terms of a number of important aspects of well-being and social progress.
Various initiatives have been under taken by the government across the departments to bring the services closer to the citizens few examples in this regards are as under:
a)     eSuvidha: in order to create and develop a bridge between the common citizen and the government departments, the Smart City Project unit (e-Suvidha) was constituted and duly registered as a government society. It is supposed to provide single window service to consumers for depositing their electricity, water, house tax, telephone and mobile bills.
b)    Lokvani rural e-service project: In this project the government has sought public-private partnership. Lokvani kiosks were being set up under private participation in rural areas, Sitapur being the first district, this service helps the citizen to avail the benefits of internet and avail the services in ITC enabled manner rather than the traditional method.
c)     Samajvadi pension yojana: Beneficiaries up to 40 laks had registered till last financial year. The automatic system and effective software are clearly handing out the benefits to the needy citizen.
d)    Treasury Computerization: one of the few government sector projects to have been certified by ISO, the treasury computerization in the state is an example of G2G and G2C interfaces. Benefiting more than nine lakh pensioners of the state
e)     Bhulekh: the land records computerization in UP started as an application especially for farmers but with concepts such as ‘Khatauni on Web’, ‘RoRAapkeDwar’ the project has benefited government, banks, NGOs and all other stakeholders. Implemented in all the 305 tehsils of the state, the project has been instrumental in bridging the digital divide to a great extent.
f)      Vahan:The state has already computerized the major activities (Driving License, Registration, Tax Collection, Permits, etc) of all RTO and ARTO offices in Uttar Pradesh.
g)     E- District: In e-district, all the above can be accessed from one portal like one stop shop.

5.  Objectives of the proposed research: 

1.     To identify good governance gaps by evaluating the ICT based e governance models for delivering efficient and effective pubic services.
2.     To find the role of modern marketing tools and techniques in implementing e governance models
3.     To find the factors influencing the adoption of e governance model.
4. To develop an effective framework for promoting good governance          with the help of technology and marketing.
5.      To find whether good governance leads to improved image of the government. 

6.  Research Problem (Gap):

The different types of programmes, projects, ideas etc. implemented by the governments may broadly be categorized as social products. These products are developed for the welfare and overall development of the society and masses. Our three-tier government-system (national, provincial, and local) creates departments/ ministries/ sections for developing such social products. The government markets social products for no profit with a primary ambition of achieving GG.
The government markets its social products by using the eight basic characteristics of GG. In general, governments are decried for bad governance. It means, while marketing social products, Government is not involving all 8 parameters as mentioned in GG concept and if involved they are ineffectively managed. Thus the Gaps in GG are cropped in. We aim to find it out in our research.
While marketing these social products, they are not propagated through the social and modern media in a professional way. And thus gaps are developed in GG.  The research aims at reducing the gap by virtue of studying the various components including the transmission, assimilation and propagation of information. The research also focuses at finding the GAP by analyzing the experiences/ perceptions of the citizens vis-a-vis the conditions laid down by UN for GG.
The study shall include how ITC enabled services like mobile governance, social media, and Marketing concepts can be clubbed and used to reduce these gaps to achieve GG. The study further aims to establish and assess correlation between good governance and its impact in improving the image of government.

7.  Impact on society: 

The idea proposed is to research the impact and effect of IT and marketing that can be employed as a tool and technique to foster social marketing efforts in India. This would help in improving the quality and quantity of our governance.  It also aims at developing a strong medium which can be practiced to evolve political marketing initiative as well and can be practiced time and again to use as an educational platform.
If the recommended findings are implemented, these can be utilized to provide the benefits of e governance to the masses in the most effective and efficient manner. It will save time and cost of the both Government and the citizens. Public will have the easy accesses to Government services as and when required (any time anywhere).

8.  Proposed- Research Methodology: 

Research methodology is an overall action plan for research. Based on logic or series of steps that connects a given set of research questions (uncertainties or gaps in our knowledge about the social world, about human behavior) to the conclusions arrived at. It encompasses the selection of research methods, the design of data gathering instruments like interview or self-administered questionnaire schedules, gaining access to the research site, sampling, research ethics and data analysis. It justifies the choices to gather meaningful, relevant, credible, trustworthy and plausible data to answer the research questions and undertake the research in an ethical way.
This study shall be conclusive in nature and Mixed Method Approach shall be adopted by using both the quantitative and the qualitative research designs together. The  research would use an exploratory research design for procuring the initial insights about the phenomenon to be investigated.

i-                  Data collection:

 The study proposes to collect data from primary and secondary sources both. An extensive review of literature will be conducted by scrutinizing the latest research that has been done in the last decade on the subject. Books, Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Booklets and Websites etc. will be referred for collecting data from secondary sources. In Primary survey, first a pilot survey involving Focus Group discussions with the experts from academics and industry will be conducted to ascertain the conceptual framework for the proposed study. Thereon a Primary survey will be conducted with structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews.

ii-               Sampling Design

The target population for the study is the consumer using government services.  The sampling to be employed is the stratified cluster sampling with the variable-age, gender. The sample size for the study would be decided after completion of pilot survey.
In the proposed work, the research work would be emphasizing upon the extensive literature survey. The study would commence with the in-depth analysis of the existing work that has been done in the past and their results. For the purpose the synthesis of the recent studies on the aforesaid areas would be done by examining the academic articles that have been published in the period 2005-2015 using electronic database.  The findings would be presented in the Chapter 1 of the thesis. Then expert surveys would be done to procure the inputs from the various experts on the subject to strengthen the comprehension of the matter summarized as well to gain valuable insights about developing it further according to the proposed research objectives.
In addition to this, the study would conduct personally administered questionnaires on the citizens using open-ended questions to gain a better comprehension of the trend revealed by the secondary data.

iii-            Classification & tabulation of data:

The data thus collected were classified according to the categories based on demographic and regional categories, counting sheets & the summary tables will be prepared.

iv-             Statistical tools used for data analysis:

SPSS (Special Package for Social Sciences) software would be used for analyzing the data covering-
1.     Descriptive statistics
2.     Correlation Analysis
3.     ANOVA Analysis
4.     Regression Analysis     

9.  PERT of Ph.D. Research Work:

S. No.
Literature Review
August 2015-January 2016
Focussed Group Discussion & Expert Surveys
November 2015-January 2016
Identification of research objectives and drafting of Synopsis & Dissertation
December 2015-January 2016
Presentation of the first research paper
January 2016
Refining Research Proposal
January 2016-February 2016
Working for research paper II
February 2016-December 2016
Documentation and publication of research papers in reputed international journals
February 2017-December 2017
First Draft of Ph.D. Report Writing
January 2018-March 2018
Second and Final draft of Ph. D. Report Writing
April 2018 –May 2018
Final Report Compilation & Presentation
June 2018-July 2018

10.              References: 

1.     Heera Lal (2010),“How to use social media in Indian election”,The south Asian time, pp 24-25
2.     Henneberg, “Political marketing theory: Hendiadyoin or Oxymoron”, Working Paper, School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
3.     Kotler, Levy (1969), “Broadening the concept of Marketing”, AMA, Journal of Marketing. Vol. 33, No1  pp10-15
4.     Vivek Bajpai, Dr. Sanjay Pandey, Mrs Shweta Vishwas (2012), “Social Media Marketing: Strategies & Its Impact”. Vol.1
5.     ICT and service, Service Innovation  “ Transforming markets with ICT enabled service innovations – A dynamic capability perspective”
6.     Zikmund, Babin, Carr, Adhikari, Griffin Cengage Learning Business Research Methods: A South Asian Perspective